reasons to support music education in your school.
How music alters the teenage brain
July 20, 2015
Music training, begun as late as
high school, may help improve the teenage brain's responses to sound and sharpen hearing and language skills, suggests
a new Northwestern University study.
The research, to be published the week of July
20 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), indicates that music instruction helps
enhance skills that are critical for academic success.
The gains were seen during
group music classes included in the schools' curriculum, suggesting in-school training accelerates neurodevelopment.
"While music programs are often the first to be cut when the school budget is tight, these results
highlight music's place in the high school curriculum," said Nina Kraus, senior study author and director of Northwestern's
Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory at the School of Communication.
learning to play music does not teach skills that seem directly relevant to most careers, the results suggest that music may
engender what educators refer to as 'learning to learn,'" Kraus added.
and colleagues recruited 40 Chicago-area high school freshmen in a study that began shortly before school started. They followed
these children longitudinally until their senior year.
Nearly half the students
had enrolled in band classes, which involved two to three hours a week of instrumental group music instruction in school.
The rest had enrolled in junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC), which emphasized fitness exercises during a comparable
period. Both groups attended the same schools in low-income neighborhoods.
recordings at the start of the study and three years later revealed that the music group showed more rapid maturation in the
brain's response to sound. Moreover, they demonstrated prolonged heightened brain sensitivity to sound details.
All participants improved in language skills tied to sound-structure awareness, but the improvement
was greater for those in music classes, compared with the ROTC group.
According to the
authors, high school music training—increasingly disfavored due to funding shortfalls—might hone brain
development and improve language skills.
The stable processing of sound details,
important for language skills, is known to be diminished in children raised in poverty, raising the possibility that music education may offset this negative influence on sound processing.
results support the notion that the adolescent brain remains receptive to training, underscoring the importance of enrichment
during the teenage years," the authors wrote.
Willingham: Six practical reasons arts education
is more than
University of Virginia cognitive scientist Daniel Willingham, author of "Why Don’t Students Like School?" is my guest today.
By Daniel Willingham
Johns Hopkins University and the Dana Foundation hosted a conference
titled “Neuroeducation: Learning, Arts and the Brain.” As the title implies, the goal was to bring together researchers
considering, from an educational point of view, the impact of the arts on the brain.
Some great neuroscientists participated,
including Mike Gazzaniga, Liz Spelke, and Mike Posner. The keynote speaker was Jerry Kagan, one of the leading researchers
in developmental psychology. His address offered six reasons that the arts should be included in school curricula.
Kagan commented that Americans are pragmatists. They respect
endeavors that cure a disease or make money, and they view the arts as luxuries. Kagan was careful to point out that his arguments
stuck to the practical.
First, he estimated that
something like 95% of children are capable of doing the work necessary to obtain a high school diploma, yet the dropout rate
hovers around 25%. Too many of these students quit because they decide (usually in about the fourth grade) that school is
not the place for them. This decision is based largely on their perception of their performance in reading and mathematics.
The arts, Kagan argues, offers such students another chance to feel successful, and to feel that they belong at school.
Second, Kagan argues that children today have very little
sense of agency—that is, the sense that they undertake activities that have an impact on the world, however small. Kagan
notes that as a child he had the autonomy to explore his town on his own, something that most parents today would not allow.
When not exploring, his activities were necessarily of his own design, whereas children today would typically watch television
or roam the internet, activities that are frequently passive and which encourage conformity. The arts, Kagan argues, offer
that sense of agency, of creation.
Kagan argues that the arts offer a unique means of communication, using representations in the mind other than words, which
are at the core of most school subjects. Kagan offers an evocative personal example. He had read about the distinction in
Japanese culture between two modes of social interaction. One emphasizes politeness, and one cannot always express all that
one thinks. In the other mode, appropriate for intimate associations, one may speak freely. Kagan noted that his understanding
of this distinction was much richer after viewing paintings at the Tokyo museum that used this theme, for example, one of
two gulls flying, one with its feet visible, the other with its feet tucked out of sight. The arts communicate in ways that
words do not.
in the arts allows children to see the importance of creating beauty, of creating an object that others may enjoy. When a
child gets an A on a math test, the immediate benefit is to the child alone. But when the child creates a drawing, she makes
something for the pleasure of others as well.
the arts offer an opportunity for children to work together. Most school work is solitary, but when a band is congratulated
for a performance it is the band as a whole that receives the compliment, not the individual child. Kagan ties this value
to a larger moral complex. Too many of children’s activities are solitary, and solely for the child’s benefit.
Morality and concern for others grows, in part, from understanding what it means to have a common fate.
Sixth, the arts provide a chance for children to express
feelings that they otherwise might be unable to express. Kagan cites data showing health benefits for this sort of self-expression;
several studies have shown that writing, even briefly, about emotional conflicts reduces illness and increases feelings of
well-being. Kagan proposes that similar benefits might accrue from artistic expression.
Yes, core subjects like reading, math, history, civics, geography,
and science are important. But the arts should not be treated as a luxury to be indulged should time allow.
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